There are 105th Amendments in the Indian Constitution by the Indian Government. All these amendments have brought significant changes in the course of Indian Polity. The 105th Amendment of Indian Constitution was imposed in the year 2021, The 127th Constitutional Amendment Bill included the 105th Amendment Act.
The Constitution spells out governmental powers with so much detail that many matters addressed by statute in other democracies must be addressed via constitutional amendment in India. The Constitution of India (under article 368 of Part XX) has given the powers of making amendments to itself to the Indian Parliament.
List of Important Amendments in Indian Constitution PDF
|S. No.||Enforced since||Amendments||Objectives|
|1st||18 June 1951||15, 19, 85, 87, 174, 176, 341, 342, 372 and 376. Insert articles 31A and 31B.Insert schedule 9.||Added special provision for the advancement of any socially and educationally backward classes or for the |
Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (SCs and STs). To fully secure the constitutional validity of zamindari abolition laws and to place reasonable restriction on freedom of speech.
A new constitutional device, called Schedule 9 introduced to protect against laws that are contrary to the Constitutionally guaranteed fundamental rights.
These laws encroach upon property rights, freedom of speech and equality before law.
|2nd||May 1, 1953||Amend article 81(1)(b)||Removed the upper population limit for a parliamentary constituency by amending Article 81(1)(b)|
|3rd||February 22, 1955||Amend schedule 7||Re-enacted entry 33 of the Concurrent List in the Seventh Schedule with relation to include trade and commerce in, and the production, supply and distribution of four classes of essential commodities, viz., foodstuffs, including edible oil seeds and oils; cattle fodder, including oilcakes and other concentrates; raw cotton whether ginned or unginned, and cotton seeds; and raw jute.|
|4th||April 27, 1955||Amend articles 31, 31A, and 305. Amend schedule 9||Restrictions on property rights and inclusion of related bills in Schedule 9 of the constitution.|
|5th||December 24, 1955||Amend article 3||Empowered the President to prescribe a time limit for a State Legislature to convey its views on proposed Central laws relating to the formation of new States and alteration of areas, boundaries or names of existing States. Also permitted the President to extend the prescribed limit, and prohibited any such bill from being introduced in Parliament until after the expiry of the prescribed or extended period.|
|6th||September 11, 1956||Amend articles 269 and 286., Amend schedule 7||Amend the Union List and State List with respect to raising of taxes.|
|7th||November 1, 1956||Amend articles 1, 3, 49, 80, 81, 82, 131, 153, 158, 168, 170, 171, 216, 217, 220, 222, 224, 230, 231 and 232. Insert articles 258A, 290A, 298, 350A, 350B, 371, 372A and 378A. Amend part 8. Amend schedules 1, 2, 4 and 7||Reorganisation of states on linguistic lines, abolition of Class A, B, C, D states and introduction of Union territories.|
|8th||January 5, 1960||Amend article 334||Extended the period of reservation of seats for the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes and Anglo-Indians in the Lok Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies till 1970.|
|9th||December 28, 1960||Amend schedule 1||Minor adjustments to territory of Indian Union consequent to agreement with Pakistan for settlement of disputes by demarcation of border villages, etc.|
|10th||August 11, 1961||Amend article 240. Amend schedule 1||Incorporation of Dadra and Nagar Haveli as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.|
|11th||December 19, 1961||Amend articles 66 and 71||Election of Vice President by Electoral College consisting of members of both Houses of Parliament, instead of election by a Joint Sitting of Parliament. Indemnify the President and Vice President Election procedure from challenge on grounds of existence of any vacancies in the electoral college.|
|12th||December 20, 1961||Amend article 240. Amend schedule 1||Incorporation of Goa, Daman and Diu as a Union Territory, consequent to acquisition from Portugal.|
Important Amendment for Indian Constitution PDF UPSC
The 105th Amendment of Indian Constitution was imposed in the year 2021, The 127th Constitutional Amendment Bill included the 105th Amendment Act. Some of the significant highlights of the 105th Amendment of the Indian Constitution are discussed below.
- The Maharashtra government granted 16% reservation to the Maratha Quota in 2019, but the court overturned this decision for two reasons. a) It exceeded the reservation limit imposed in the landmark Indira Sawhney case. b) The second reason given by the Supreme Court was that the state lost its authority to grant OBC reservations under the 102nd amendment.
- The National Commission for Backward Classes (NCBC) accomplished constitutional status in 2018 through the 102nd Amendment Act, which noted that the President and Central Government will preserve the list of Backward Classes, which states ended up losing the power to maintain.
- The 105th amendment was then carried, rebuilding the state government’s authority to recognize Socially and Economically Backward Classes.
- The 102nd Amendment introduced Article 338 B and Article 342 A, in which Article 338B granted NCBC constitutional status and Article 342A granted the Central Government the authority to preserve the OBC list.
Important Amendment for Indian Constitution PDF Download
You can download the List of Important Amendments in Indian Constitution PDF using the link given below.